20,000 Years of Civilization


Miraflores district of Lima © Charles Wollertz / 123RF

Modern Peru

During the 1970s, Peru was governed by a military dictatorship led by General Juan Velasco. The military administration nationalized oil and the media and reformed agrarian bases, radically changing ownership of agricultural lands.

Democratic governments returned in the 1980s, but the country sank into a severe economic crisis with extremely high levels of hyperinflation. At the same time, two terrorist movements emerged that brought violence to the country for twenty years.

In the 1990s, Alberto Fujimori, after a self-inflicted coup in 1992, dictated a series of laws that brought these terrorist groups to an end, leading the country to be reincorporated into the global economic system, from which it had withdrawn in the 1980s due to its decision to not pay its foreign debt.

As of 2000, Peru has had consecutive, clearly democratic governments, led by Alejandro Toledo, Alan García and currently Ollanta Humala Tasso (2011-2016). The country is currently enjoying high economic growth, reaching levels of growth never seen before, and overcoming the crisis of past decades.